Black Turmeric is a perennial herb with bluish-black rhizome, native to North-East and Central India. The leaves have a deep violet-red patch which runs through the length of the lamina. Usually, the upper side of the leaf is rough, velvety, but this character may vary. Flowering bracts are green with a ferruginous tinge. Flower petals may be deep pink or red in color. The rhizome is bitter, hot taste with pungent smell. Black Turmeric is used in Tantrik Sadhana. The dried leaves are used as a source for fuel. Presently Black Turmeric is on the verge of extinction.
Blue Snakeweed is a herb up to 1.2 m tall. Flowers are blue. This plant can easily be confused with Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant has long tap roots. Leaves are opposite, thin, shallowly toothed. Flowers are borne in a terminal spike, embedded in the rachis, which is 1-3 mm in diameter. Flower-tube is curved, dark blue to whitish. Blue Snakeweed is native to south America, cultivated in various parts of the world.
Blue Sonki an erect branched plant, half a meter tall. Alternately arranged, stalkless, broad-elliptic leaves, are acute at both ends. Leaf margin is coarsely serrated, rough, glandular. Leaves are light green above, pale beneath. Blue-purple flower-heads occcur in corymbose panicles. Bracts oblong, hairy, grandular; style arms hairy. It is occasionally found in grasslands at high elevations on Western Ghats.
The Blue Waterlily, also known as the Indian Blue Lotus is a water-lily that is found in India. The leaves are broadly rounded, 25-40 cm across, with a notch at the leaf stem. The flowers are 10-15 cm diameter, open in the morning, rising to the surface of the water, then close and sink at dusk. It has blue petals, smoothly changing to a pale yellow in the centre of the flower. There is variety Nymphaea nouchali var. caerulea is the sky-blue colored so-called Egyptian 'lotus'. It is found growing along the Nile. It was considered extremely significant in Egyptian mythology, since it rose and fell with the sun.
The Brahma Kamal, the much reverred flower of the Himalayas, is an excellent example of plant life at the upper limit of high mountains (3,000-4,600 m). The flowerheads are actually purple, but are enclosed in layers of greenish-yellow, papery, boat-shaped bracts. The flowers bloom at the height of the monsoons and abundant in high-altitude places like The Valley of Flowers. The bract-cover provides the warm space needed to bloom in the cold mountains. The flowers are used as offering in the hill temples, like the shrines of Badrinath. The thick curved root of the plant is applied to bruises and cuts, as part of local medicine. Brahma Kamal is the state flower of Uttarakhand. A postal stamp was issued by the Indian Postal Department to commemorate this flower.
Bristly Smithia is a bristly erect annual herb, growing up to 1-1.5 m high. Leaves abruptly pinnate, 5-10 cm long. Stalkless leaflets occur in 4-7 pairs, and are 2-4 cm, oblong. Flowers form a large panicle. Flowers are 1.5-2 cm, bright yellow, with two red spots near the base.
China Pinks are short-lived perennial garden plants, native to China and northern parts of India, blooming in several colours. They are extremely popular garden plants in India. The small single flowers have four to six slightly overlapping petals that have smooth or often cut and fringed edges. The pretty petals in the shades of pink and red and white are gathered at the base into a strong green tubular calyx. Stamens protrude out and the anthers are blue. The plant grows in well drained soil, in beds, pots, borders in sunny areas and can easily be multiplied by seeds.
Chrysanthemum is a genus of about 30 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Amongst florists and in the floral industry, they are commonly referred to as "mums". The species of Chrysanthemum are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 50-150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and large flowerheads, white, yellow or pink in the wild species. They belong to the Sunflower family, Compositae. Their flowers come in every color except blue. Their blooms come in a huge variety of shapes and sizes.
Cockscomb is an annual herb and is very common as a garden plant. The tightly clustered blooms are said to resemble a rooster's comb, thus the common name "cockscomb". Flower colors include red, yellow, orange, gold, and pink. The cockscombs are erect, branching plants with oval or lance-shaped, strongly veined leaves 2-6 in (5.1-15.2 cm) long and hundreds of tiny flowers packed in dense, brightly colored flowerheads which usually stand above the foliage. In south India, cockscombs are used extensively for the Onam "Pookkalam".
Common Begonia is an annual succulent herb, growing up to 25 cm. It is quite common among forested hilly regions of Western Ghats, and is seen growing on sheltered moss covered rocks, in groups. Alternately arranged ovate, acute leaves with crenate margins, are 3-8 cm long. Leaf base is unequally heart-shaped. Flowers occur on slender stalks. Male flowers are 1 cm across, pink in color, and have 2 petals and 2 sepals. Female flowers have 5 unequal perianth segments. Capsules are 608 mm, 3 winged.
Common hill borage is a flower which looks like a beautiful white version of the famous blue Forget-Me-Not. The white, or pale blue flowers, 6-10 mm across, have a shape similiar to forget-me nots, but have a blue shaded center. It is an erect perennial herb, 1-2 m tall, with red stems and branches. Basal leaves are very large, up to 25 cm long, ovate-heart-shaped, carried on a foot long red stalks. Stem leaves are smaller, 5 cm long, carried on short stalks. Flowers are borne in forked racemes on branch ends. Common hill borage is native to India, found in Western Ghats.
Common Sopubia is a widely found root-parasite herbage in India. Its juice is reported to possess healing properties for sores caused by moisture and is also reported to be an abortifacient. Erect herb, stem grooved, branched, spotted with purple. As the name delphinifolia suggests, its leaves are like those of Delphihiums. Rosy white trumpet shaped flowers with long necks, appear along the stem. It is common in moist grasslands. It is distributed in Western Peninsular India, Sri Lanka and Shimoga.
Dalzell's Yellow Balsam is easy to identify as it is the only yellow Balsam found in the Western Ghats. It is an annual herb, growing to 1-1.5 ft tall. Alternately arranged lance-shaped leaves, 5-12 cm long, are pointed and have serrated margin with spines in the teeth. Base of the leaves is heart-shaped. While the lower leaves have a short stalk, the upper ones are stalkless. Yellow flowers occur singly in the upper leaf axils. They are 1-1.5 cm across. Sepals are linear and the standard petal is hooded, winged on the back. Lip is boat-shaped, streaked with red veins. The spur is short. Capsules are 1- 1.5 cm long.
Datura is a herbaceous perennial with a sprawling, mounded habit, up to 3 ft high and 6 ft across. The spectacular white or pale lavender, trumpet-shaped flowers are 8 in long and 6 in across, and held erect. Datura contains the toxic alkaloids that have caused poisoning and death by Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium), also known as 'loco weed' because of it's effect on cattle. General symptoms of poisoning are agitation, choreiform (spasmodic) movement, coma, drowsiness, hallucination, elevated temperature.
Deccan Pogostemon is a small erect acquatic herb which grows up to 8-20 cm high. Branched stems are leafy, and arise out of creeping rootstocks. Narrow stalkless leaves occur in whorls of 5 or more. Flowers occur in dense hairy branched spikes, 3-7 cm long. Flower tube is hairy and purple, 2-3 mm. Hairy purple stamens protrude out of the flowers.
It is seen most spectacularly on the Kaas plateau. Flower are 1-1.5 cm. Tepals are unequal. Flower stalkes are stout. Filaments are not adnate wholly to flower tube. Bracts are much longer than flower-stalks.
Native to India, Forest Ghost Flower is a gregarious root parasite seen on shaded forest floor during monsoon. Leafless flowers are in one group, red purple or even white, solitary on a slender erect scape.Flowers have a curious shape - the sepal tube is split, from which emerges a rosy pink flowers tube. They look like rose-buds in brownish holders. Occurs on forest floor covered with decayed leaves.
Grass of the Dew plant has furry violet blooms, dotted with yellow stamens. It is a perennial herb with fibrous roots. Leaves are in a basal rosette and cauline. Rosulate leaf blade linear, 8-35 × 0.5-1.5 cm; cauline leaf blade on fertile stems much shorter, to 7 cm, abaxially rather densely arachnoid. Flowers arise in often several, both terminal and axillary heads, stalkless or on a stalk up to 4 cm. Bracts are 7-8 mm. Sepals are fused at base, linear-lanceshaped, about 5 mm, webby on the underside. Petals are blue-purple, blue, or white, about 6 mm. Filaments are blue, cobweb-like. Capsules are broadly oblong, trigonous, about 2.5 mm, densely hairy at the tip.
Grass-leaved Bladderwort is an insectivorous aquatic herb, 5-15 cm tall. The root fibres have small bladders. Linear oblong grass-like leaves, coming out straight from the root, are 6-10 mm long. Flowers appear on erect filament-like scapes 5-15 cm tall. Scapes are 2-6 flowered. Slender stalks are 6-8 mm long. Flowers are 2-lipped, fragrant, bluish purple. Upper lips small, 4 mm, obovate, narrowed at the base. The larger lower lip is deeply convex, 10-15 mm, almost circular, bluish purple with a pale purple and veined center. The slender, curved spur is 8-12 mm long. It is occasionally found on wet rocks in grasslands at hight elevations in the Western Ghats.
Sahyadri Dew-Grass is a succulent herb, 15-90 cm high, growing in forests and hills of the Western Ghats. Stalkless, sheathed leaves are 15-25 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, coming out from the roots. Upper stem leaves are shorter. Bluish purple flowers occur in cymes at the end of branches, enclosed in a pair of ovate, partially folded bracts. There are six stamens with filaments densely bearded with long blue hairs. Yellow anthers are prominent.
Hairy Smithia is a slender, erect herb, 30-35 cm tall. Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets 2-4 pairs, each 6-10 x 2-5 mm, obovate or oblong, serrate, apex rounded, bristle-tipped. Flowers yellow, in few-flowered, compact racemes at the end of branches. The flowers have 5 free petals - "standard" petal with reddish marks on 2 sides.
Hill Turmeric is an erect herb, found on moist, shaded areas of wet forests and along sluggish grassy slopes of higher altitude. It has stout rootstock bearing small almond like sub-globose tubers at the ends of the fibrous roots. The tubers are fleshy and white inside, aromatic.
Flowering spikes seen in the center of the previously formed tuft of leaves, bearing numerous compactly arranged flowers; flowering bracts conspicuous, inverted eggshaped to lancelike, apex rounded to acute, hairless; green with a pinktip.
Indian Arrowroot is an annual herb growing upto 50-100 cm high. The plant has perennial rhizomes with many hanging tubers. Oblong lancelike leaves are upto half a meter long. Flowers occur in a spike 10-15 cm long, and are yellow or white. More prominent are the greenish white or pinkish white bracts.
Indian Pitcher Plant is a carnivorous plant endemic to the Khasi hills of Meghalaya after which it is named. The species has a very localised distribution and is critically endangered. The Khasi people call the plant tiew-rakot, which means demon-flower or devouring-plant. The plant has long, oblong-lanceshaped leaves. Some unusual leaves first look like normal leaves, then develop a tendril at their tip, and finally the tip of the tendril develops an amazing pitcher, with a lid on top. As the pitcher matures, the lid turns a reddish hue. When an insect goes inside, the lid closes, and the insect is eventually digested.
This lovely wildflower is common along roadsides and open fields throughout the North-East India, especially near cultivated garden. The spherical black seeds of Indian shot are so hard and perfectly round that they resemble oversized buckshot from a shotgun shell. In fact, they are so dense that they readily sink in water. The seeds are called "Indian shot" because of their superficial resemblance to lead shot ammunition of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout tropical regions of the world the shiny black beads are strung into earrings and necklaces, often as spacers between larger beads or mixed with silver trinkets and gemstones. The species name indica is a misnomer - this plant is not a native of India, but West Indies.
Jaini Ceropegia is a small erect herb, with tuberous root. Tubers are hairless.Slender stem is green with oppositely arranged leaves. Leaves are linear-lanceshaped, hairy on both sides, margins with stiff hairs. Flowers occur singly in leaf axils. Sepals are lance-shaped. Flowers are tubular, with the tube enlarged at the base and white. Five narrow linear petals are reddish-purple, and hairy at the base. Sometimes the flower is completely purplish-red.
Konkan Pinda is an annual herb with tuberous roots, which grows up to 1-2 ft high. Pinnate leaves are 10-20 cm long, 3-4 cm ovate, toothed, 3-lobed leaflets. White flowers are 1 cm across, and are arranged in beautiful compound umbels 5-10 cm across. Petals of outer flowers are larger, and 8-10 mm, obovate, 2-lobed. Occasionally seen on the edges of cliffs in forest clearings in the Western Ghats.
Lanceleaf Forget-Me-Not is an erect much branched, biennial or perennial herb, growing up to 1.2 m tall. Stem and branches are covered with rigid white hairs 1-2 mm long. Basal leaves are stalked lanceshaped, including stalk 10-20 x 2-4 cm. Upper surface is covered uniformly with thin hairs, lower surface is densely hairy. Stem leaves similar, but smaller and nearly stalkless. Flowers are borne in cymes all along the branches, white to sky blue. Flower stalks are very short in flower, up to 3 mm and reflexed in fruit. Sepals are densely hairy externally, hairless within, up to 2 mm long in fruit, spreading. Petals are ovate-obtuse. Flower throat scales are broader than long. Fruits consist of 4 small nutlets, covered in sticky hairs.
Large Dewflower is a perennial herb, 30-60 cm. Flowers opening in late afternoon. Petals 3, equal, obovate, about1 cm. Stamens: 2 upper, fertile and curved downwards, the third sterile; filaments with long purple, beaded hairs. Staminodes 3 with glabrous filaments, the empty anthers yellow and 3-lobed. Capsule oblong-spherical, c.6 mm. Seeds oblong-spherical, 1.5 mm, the transverse ribs tuberculate, reticulate.
Little Persian Violet, is a small herbaceous plant, and is a dwarfish species of Persian Violets. Leaves are dark green, ovate, oppositely arranged. Upper leaves are 1-2 cm, lancelike. Basal leaves are very small. The small purplish blue star-shaped flowers with deep yellow stamens. They are very showy. The plant occurs in monsoons.
Lobed Leaf Mallow is an annual herb, erect, 50-70 cm tall. Leaf blade is membranous, dimorphic - blades on proximal part of stem ovate-circular, 1.5-3 cm, those in middle 3-parted, to 5 cm, on distal part of stem nearly divided or 3-foliate, margin roundly dentate. Flowers solitary or arranged in sparse racemes, axillary. Flowers white or yellow; petals 0.6-0.7 cm. Staminal column to 0.4 cm. Styles 5, extending. Lobed Leaf Mallow is native to Tropical Africa, Madagascar, and tropical Asia.
No other plant figures so prominently in Asian religions as the Lotus. Both Hindus and Buddhists regard it as a sacred symbol and use it not only in offerings but also in countless art forms. The Lotus is native to Asia and flourishes in a wide range of climates from India to China. Unlike other members of water lily family, its large pink or white petalled flowers and leaf stalks rise above the water, sometimes for a considerable distance. The large, round leaves are covered with a network of microscopic hairs, which keep them dry in a rain. When the flower petals fall, they are replaced by a flat-topped seed pod divided into compartments, resembling a wasp's hive. The tender seeds are munched happily in the north-east India. Infact, the stem is eaten almost in all parts of India, and pickled too. A postal stamp was issued by the Indian Postal Department to commemorate this flower.
Lupin are herbaceous ornamental plants native to the American continents and parts of Africa. The species are mostly perennial plants 1-5 ft tall, but some are annual plants and a few are shrubs up to 10 ft tall. The leaf blades are usually palmately divided into 5–28 leaflets. The flowers are produced in dense or open whorls on an erect spike, each flower 1-2 cm long, with a typical peaflower shape with an upper 'standard', two lateral 'wings' and two lower petals fused as a 'keel'. Due to the flower shape, several species are known as bluebonnets or quaker bonnets. The fruit is a pod containing several seeds.
Maccani Ceropegia is an erect perennial herb 3-4 feet tall. Leaves are ovate-lanceshaped, hairy above, hairlsess below. Flowers are small, borne in clusters of 6-10. Flowers are white to purplish grey outside, dark purple inside. Lobes are obovate, pointed at tips, creamy white to yellow outside, yellowish-orange inside, hairless, fused at tips forming a minute obovate or obconic head. Outer corona is cup-shaped, 5–lobed, each with a short notch in the middle or slightly bifid, hairy. Pollen masses yellow.
Marsh Dewflower is an erect or nearly erect, branched herb. Leaves are lanceshaped, margin wavy, tip pointed or shortly tapering, base rounded, more or less stem-claspinge, prominently striped, hairy. Flowers are 5-6 mm long, 1-2, orange-yellow, in leaf-axils to the upper leaf-sheaths; flower-stalks 2-4 cm long, erect or slightly bent in fruits, jointed at middle, hairy below the joints; bracteoles 2 at joints, about 1 mm long, membranous, ovate, blunt. Sepals 3, free, slightly unequal, about 6 x 2 mm, elliptic-oblong, subpointed, straw-coloured, persistent. Petals 3, free, orange-yellow, bluish when dry, obovate, slightly longer than sepals. Fertile stamens are 3; filaments bearded; anthers 2-celled; staminodes 3. Capsule 5-7 mm long, oblong, trigonous, cuspidate with persistent style, 3-celled; seeds 3 or more, angular, pitted. Marsh Dewflower is found in Peninsular India.
Mexican Prickly Poppy is a prickly, hairless, branching herb with yellow juice and showy yellow flowers, The Sanskrit name svarnakshiri is given because of the yellow juice (Svarna - Gold; Kshiri - Juice ). In India it is introducd and naturalised and occurs as wasteland weed in almost every part of India. In many parts it is repoorted as crop weed also. The height of this plant varies between 1-4 ft. Leaves are thistlelike, stem-clasping, oblong, multiply cut, spiny, with white viens. Flowers occur at the end of branches, yellow. 2.5-5.0 cm across. Fruits are capsules. The plants is toxic to animals and cattle.
Net-veined Bladderwort is an insectivorous aquatic herb, up to half a meter tall. It has numerous narrowly linear-oblong leaves, 1-2 cm long. The scapes are erect, 15-50 cm, slender and twinning. Flowers appear well-spaced on the upper part of the raceme, with 6-12 mm stalk. The bluish purple flowers are 2-lipped. The larger lip, 1.2-1.6 cm, is net-veined with dark colored veins, and has a light colored center. The conical, straight spur is 6 mm long.
Peace Lily, is a very popular indoor houseplant. It is a clump-growing herbaceous perennial which produces white flowers which look like the hood of a cobra. Leaves are shiny and glossy, attractive even with no spathes. Peace lilies are sturdy plants with glossy, dark green oval leaves that narrow to a point. The leaves rise directly from the soil. The long-lasting flowers start out pale green and slowly turn creamy white as they open. Keep the leaves clean with water washes to remove dust and dirt. Peace Lily can attract mites, scales and mealy bugs so cleaning will help keep these pests away.
This is an unusual flower to be seen growing wild in parts of India. Peruvian Zinnia is an annual herb native to the American continents, and has presumably naturalized here. It is a 1-2 ft tall upright, branching plant. Leaves are nearly stalkless, narrow ovate or lance-shaped, up to 4.5 cm long and 2 cm wide. Flower heads arise singly at the top of stems. Ray florets are red, pink or purple, to 1.5 x 1.1 cm, while the disc florets are brownish.
Puncture Vine is an obnoxious weed whose seeds are incredibly painful to step on, they easilly puncture your bicycle tires, and sometimes have to be pulled out of your pets' paws. It is a taprooted herbaceous perennial plant that grows as a summer annual in colder climates. They are usually prostrate, forming flat patches, though they may grow more upwards in shade or among taller plants. The leaves are pinnately compound with leaflets less than a quarter-inch long. The flowers are 4-10 mm wide, with five lemon-yellow petals. A week after each flower blooms, it is followed by a fruit that easily falls apart into four or five single-seeded nutlets. The nutlets or "seeds" are hard and bear two sharp spines, 10 mm long and 4-6 mm broad point-to-point.
Purple Heads is an annual herb, growing to 60 cm tall. It makes it appearance in the monsoons. Upper leaves smaller than the lower ones, 10-15 cm, elliptic-lancelike. Inflorescences are purple solitary heads 8-12 mm, at the end of branches. Leafy bracts below the purple heads, longer than them. Occassioanlly seen on the hills of Western Ghats.
Purple Heart, a native of Mexico, is named for the striking purple color of the plant in full sun. Pale orchid-pink three-petaled flowers emerge from curving double bracts at the stem tips. Purple heart blooms constantly during warm weather, but the flowers are open only in the morning. The lance shaped leaves are covered with pale hairs. The fleshy stems are first erect, later lying on the ground as a creeping herb. They make an attractive basket subject and can be used as an annual ground-cover. Purple hearts do best in full sun to light shade. If grown in lower light levels, the plant tends to lose its purple coloring. Purple heart is propagated by cutting or from seed.
Rosemary Leaved Balsam is an annual herb, 30-50 cm high. One of its species name rosmarinifolia means having leaves like rosemary. Rosemary is a plant with narrow leaves. The leaves of Rosemary Leaved Balsam are opposite, 3-8 cm, narrow lancelike, with spiny teeth. Upper leaves are stalkless, while the lower ones have stalks. Orange-purple flowers, 1-1.5 cm occur in leaf axils either solitary or in groups of 2-3. The standard petals are round. The lip is conical like a hook.
Safed Musli is a herb with sub-erect leaves and tuberous root system. The plant sports a rosette of long, slender leaves, growing from a thick, fleshy rhizome. The flowers are small, white, produced on sparse panicles. Leaves are slightly yellowish and white flowers are arranged on the flowering stalk which emerge from the centre of the plant.
Scarlet milkweed is an erect, evergreen perennial subshrub, often grown as an annual. Like most milkweeds, it has opposite leaves and milky sap. The blossoms of scarlet milkweed are are red and orange, less than an inch across, and appear in clusters at the top of 2 to 4 ft. stalks. It is without a doubt the best milkweed species for the home garden. Scarlet milkweed gets about 3-4 ft tall and usually has a few pairs of symmetrical branches. The leaves are about 5 in long, narrowly elliptic, and pointed at both ends. It blooms continuously from spring until autumn. The fruits are spindle shaped pods, 3-4 in long, that eventually split open to release little flat seeds that drift away on silky parachutes. Scarlet milkweed is native to South America but has become a naturalized weed in tropical and subtropical pastures, fields and disturbed areas throughout the world.
Silver cockscombs are erect, branching plants with oval or lance-shaped, strongly veined leaves 2-6 in long and hundreds of tiny flowers packed in dense spikes of silver-white flowers which usually stand above the foliage. They are beautiful plants with soft, dense feathery spikes, produced in profusion. Wonderful straw-like flower when dried. It offers fresh shape and colour to cut flower, or everlasting flower arrangements, with 10-13cm flower spikes on 60cm stems. Slender, cylindrical pink or rose flowerheads have a metallic sheen because the individual flowers are silvery-white at their bases. Excellent as a flowering pot plant. Height 60-75cm.
Native to the north-eastern hill state of Manipur in India, Siroi lily is surely the most beautiful of all lilies. As many as eleven of its white bell shaped flowers, flushed pink at the base, may appear on a single stem. However, mostly only a few flowers are seen on one stem. Siroi lily is the state flower of Manipur, but has unfortunately become a rare and endangered species in India. The plant is about a foot tall. The leaves are longish and narrow like most lilies. The flowers are pinkish white, delicately flushed pink at the base, and hang looking down. In fact, in Manipur the flower is compared to a beautiful and modest girl. In India the plant blooms in May-June, and is a local tourist attraction. A postal stamp was issued by the Indian Postal Department to commemorate this flower.
Spherical Pipewort is an erect annual aquatic herb, 15-20 cm tall. Stems are almost absent. Long membranous leaves, 7-15 cm, arise from the roots, with sheaths at the base. Minute white flowers are arranged in spherical heads, carried on long, slender, grooved, vertical stalks. Flowers are white, 7-9 mm diameter. Bracts below the flowers are black. Spherical Pipeworts are occasionally found gregariously growing in shallow flowing water on plateaus in Western Ghats.
Spotted Dayflower is a perennial herb. Leaf sheaths are brown, white, or yellow ciliate at mouth, glabrous elsewhere or hairy in a line on 1 side. Leaf blade is ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 4-10 × 1.5-2.5 cm, velvety on both surfaces. Cincinni arise with 3 or 4(or several) flowers slightly exserted only at anthesis and included in fruit. Flower stalks are about 3 mm. Sepals are 4 mm, membranous. Petals are blue, 2 anterior ones to 1 cm, posterior one 4 mm. Capsule globose, trigonous, ca. 4 mm, 3-valved, or 2-valved by abortion of 1 ovule. Seeds 1 per valve, gray-black, ellipsoid, ca. 3 mm, slightly flattened, subsmooth. Spotted Dayflower is found in humid forest margins, grasslands, roadsides, ditches, near sea level to 2900 m.
In Greek "helios" means sun and "anthos" means flower, thus Sunflower. The name is just apt for a plant that turns its flower to face directly into the sun as it passes and also looks like the sun in its yellow rays. Helianthus annuus is a highly variable species that is indigenous to North America. There are so many different-looking cultivars of sunflower that it's hard to make generalizations about the whole species. Most sunflowers are tall 8-15 ft (2.4-4.6 m); most have rough-hairy oval to heart shaped leaves; most have large flowerheads 8-12 in (20-30.5 cm) across; and most have yellow ray florets and purplish brown disk florets. The ray florets of sunflowers are sterile, and only the disk florets produce seeds.
Sunn Hemp is an annual, about a meter or more tall. Many ascending branches are velvet-hairy. Leaf is simple, linear or oblong, blunt or somewhat pointed, apiculate, velvet-hairy on both sides, hairs appressed, silky. Inflorescence an erect at branch-ends and lateral raceme. Flowers are bright yellow. Vexillum ovate-oblong, slightly protruding. It is commonly grown in India for fodder.
Touch Me Not is a wonderful and curious plant which is found growing wild throughout the tropical world. It native origin is unclear. Its fern-like leaves close up and droop when touched, usually re-opening within minutes. It has prickly stems and small, fluffy, ball shaped pink flowers in summer. It grows to a height of 50 cm with a spread of 30 cm. The leaves are bipinnate, fern like and pale green- closing when disturbed. Stalked pale pink or purple flower-heads arise from the leaf axils. The round to ovoid heads are 8-10 mm in diameter (excluding the stamens). On close examination, it is seen that the floret petals are red in their upper part and the filaments are pink to lavender. The flowers are pollinated by the wind and insects. The seeds have hard seed coats which restricts germination.
Violet Asystasia is a perennial branched herb, about 60-100 m. Stem quadrangular, swollen at nodes. Leaves opposite, unequal ovate or elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers purplish violet. Flowers are trumpet shaped, 3-4 cm long, 2-lipped. Upper lip is 4-lobed. Lower lip is dark violet, spotted, projecting out.
Water Snowflake is a pretty, fast-growing, perennial water plant. A blooming colony indeed looks like snow-flakes on water. It has flat, rounded, floating leaves, and delicate white and yellow flowers appearing in summer. Water snowflake has white flowers with yellow centres. The petals have unusual, feathery edges. The flowers are formed above the floating leaves with 2-4 cm long stalks. Although they bear some resemblance to water lilies, they are not related. New plants are formed all the time where the floating stolons (above-ground, modified stems) form tufted plantlets along their lengths. The mother plant has a short, thick stem which is rooted in the mud at the bottom of the pond. In its natural habitat the plant may be subject to periods where the water may dry up, in this case it forms roots at the nodes to help it survive.
A native of the warmer parts of America, Fairy Lily is a half-hardy bulbous plant bearing linear, hollow, strap-shaped or grass-like leaves. The solitary flowers consisting of 6 pointed petals, borne on a short scape are delicate and flourish throughout the rainy season, especially after heavy showers. A good garden soil is suitable and a sunny or semi-shady environment. The propagation is by bulbs.